Overall, preparing for the threat of quantum computing requires a proactive, agile and forward-thinking approach.
By taking these steps, companies can help to ensure the security of their products and services in the face of this emerging technology:
 NIST(USA), ANSSI (France), BSI (Germany), ENISA (Europe), Cryptec (Japan), China regulation authorities
For the standards updates: PKCS#11 (includes HSS), under redactions: ETSI, IETF
Others launching projects on Quantum resistant algorithms: RISQ, QuIC, SQC, WEF Quantum Economy Network
Kudelski Group offers a variety of different services and solutions that enable companies and institutions to understand their risks and take action to mitigate them.
The first step is to identify the client’s exposure to possible threats. This requires understanding the technology used. But also how it is deployed and what kind of data is processed with it.
Connected systems and IoT devices are exposed to a wide range of security risks. Companies which develop IoT systems are supposed to secure assets, data and processes in the long run. They shall identify what are the entry points that matter. Threats and constraints landscape analysis from the business model, technological and contextual standpoints increase awareness of potential threats scenarios and enables development teams to focus their effort on reaching the desired level of security of the IoT system.
A comprehensive device and system-wide threat assessment encompassing the quantum threats will provide a list of envisioned risks and threats scenarios. The likelihood of an event with a successful attack and its impact for the product, the user and/or the business are also part of threat assessment.
We detect and compile an inventory of all the cryptographic artifacts on the evaluated system within hosts, storage, and network. This includes SSL certificates, cryptographic keys, libraries, transmission protocols, and more. Cryptography that is not quantum resistant is flagged for inspection.
The importance of selecting the right components, implementing the right configuration at start or enabling a future shift towards quantum-secure solutions will ensure the desired security level to be reached and maintained over time. The security architecture of an IoT system must provide appropriate measures to protect the most critical assets. It must also be defined to reach the business objectives while accepting risk where appropriate.
By incorporating quantum resistance, the global system architecture will embed the right features to:
· protect data and communications
· ensure the integrity of the device
· address its security lifecycle to hold control over time.
We help you to design quantum-resistant hardware or software architectures, or to review existing ones. This is crucial for long-lifecycle products or services, or for enterprises who need long-term security compliance.
Our experts perform a detailed evaluation of any issue found in the discovery or testing phase, including cryptographic artifacts, hardware side-channels, and code. We rank these issues by severity and provide mitigation recommendations considering the latest technology developments and including quantum computer threat.
We reproduce public attacks on implementations such as SPHINCS+, CRYSTALS-Dilithium, or CRYSTALS-Kyber and investigate new ones using fault injection and side-channel attacks. We perform research of vulnerabilities on custom solutions. We validate the robustness of quantum-secure algorithms design, their implementation and their countermeasures.
 “On Protecting SPHINCS+ Against Fault Attacks” https://ia.cr/2023/042 (CHES 2023)
“A Practical Template Attack on CRYSTALS-Dilithium “ https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/050.pdf (CHES 2023)
“Power analysis attack on Kyber” https://eprint.iacr.org/2021/1311.pdf
“Breaking a Fifth-Order Masked Implementation of CRYSTALS-Kyber by Copy-Paste” https://eprint.iacr.org/2022/1713.pdf
We help you to design, implement, and monitor an effective and tailor-made strategy for a smooth quantum security migration. We are technology-agnostic and will consider the best suitable solution for your use case.
We offer a vast portfolio of secure IP, which includes resistance against side channel and fault attacks. It also support some of the proposed quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms and mechanisms for updating them.
IoT devices will remain in the fields several years. Depending on their purpose, they should be designed with quantum computing threat in mind. Today, the available quantum resistant algorithms cannot replace directly RSA and ECC. Indeed, there is no “one size fits all” like with RSA or ECC:
- Stateful and Stateless hash-based signatures offer solutions to secure IoT device initialization and over-the-air updates. CNSA 2.0 enforces this approach .
- Different lattices-based algorithms offer solution for
o signatures in context of mutual authentication: CRYSTALS-DIlithium or Falcon
o key encapsulation mechanisms to replace key agreement: CRYSTALS-Kyber
There are also candidates based on code-based cryptosystems and a new NIST competition to offer alternative to lattice-based solution for signatures.
These different options and the lack of maturity for some bring uncertainty and complexity to have secure implementations. A careful evaluation of the needs is very important. With our expertise and Secure IP modular features we could address these difficulties.
Indeed, in addition to classical cryptographic algorithms, Kudelski IoT's Secure IP optionally embeds several quantum resistant algorithms. Based on the first standard recommendation NIST-SP800-208, the stateful hash-based signatures, LMS, XMSS and their extension could be available. Although the standards are not yet available, CRYSTALS (Cryptographic Suite for Algebraic Lattices) based -Kyber and Dilithium could also be embedded in Kudelski’s Secure IP. Development and integration of other lattices-based schemes - Frodo-KEM and Falcon- and stateless hash-based signature Sphincs+ are also planned in its roadmap.
Moreover, Secure IP features and interfaces enable hybrid asymmetric cryptography which relies on well-known and evaluated asymmetric algorithms (RSA and ECC based) in combination with quantum resistant algorithms.
To bring performance and flexibility, the secure IP uses a RISC-V architecture enhanced by hardware accelerators. For quantum resistant algorithms to guarantee agility and capability to update them according to new specifications releases or new attacks, the implementation is a combination of hardware and software primitives.
To ensure security, robustness against side channel and fault attacks the secure IP designers take them in consideration at the different design phases of hardware and software functionalities.
Considering the constant attacks, security evolutions, and standards updates: Kudelski IoT's Secure IP provides features to enhance life cycle management, secure update mechanism and secure initialization including the quantum computer as a threat.
We provide expert training and education on quantum computing and quantum security topics, and their applications and implications: from academia to business, for executives, technical leaders and engineers.
The potential threats posed by quantum computing to product security are significant and must be taken seriously. As quantum computers continue to evolve, traditional cryptographic methods that have long been relied upon to protect communications, sensitive data and intellectual property may no longer suffice.
However, businesses and organizations can take proactive steps to protect their products from the risks of quantum computing. They shall conduct a comprehensive assessment of their current security architecture and identify areas that are vulnerable to quantum attacks. Next, they can explore alternative cryptographic methods that are resistant to quantum computing, such as lattice-based cryptography.
Businesses can also invest in quantum-resistant solutions that have been specifically designed to withstand the power of quantum computing. It is crucial to stay informed and up-to-date on the latest developments in quantum computing and quantum-secure technology to ensure that products remain secure in the face of these emerging threats.
For more information about the basics of quantum computing and security principles, please download our free white paper, Point of View: Quantum Computing, Cryptography, and Security Technology.
This article contains contributions from Karine Villegas, Tommaso Gagliardoni, Lamyae Lahlou-Ben Moussa, Aymeric Genêt, Nathan Hamiel, Christopher Schouten and Benoit Gerhard.
Identify the most likely security risks and their potential impact.