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Quantum Computing

Quantum Resistance: 4 Steps to Creating a Quantum-Secure Architecture

Quantum computing has the potential to break current encryption and authentication methods based on classical asymmetric cryptography, which could pose a serious threat to data security and privacy for a wide variety of companies. As such, companies that rely on classical cryptography to protect their products and services should start preparing for the possibility of quantum attacks.

Benoît Gerhard
Benoît Gerhard
Senior Director Security Evaluations, Kudelski IoT Labs
Updated on
June 13, 2023
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What are four steps that companies can take to prepare a Quantum-Secure Architecture?

Overall, preparing for the threat of quantum computing requires a proactive, agile and forward-thinking approach.

By taking these steps, companies can help to ensure the security of their products and services in the face of this emerging technology:

  1. Assess the risk: Companies should start by assessing the potential impact of quantum computing on their products and services. They should identify the critical assets that need to be protected. Then they should evaluate the strength of their current cryptographic algorithms and protocols used in their company according to the validity period and sensitivity level of each asset.

  2. Develop a quantum-resistant strategy: Companies should start developing a strategy for implementing quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms and protocols. This may involve developing new cryptographic algorithms, updating protocols or using existing quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms. The migration strategy should also focus on evaluating the costs and potential challenges associated with the transition. This may involve investing in new hardware, software, and training for their employees. Product and software development, internal infrastructures, and key management processes shall also be part of this quantum-resistant strategy.

  3. Stay informed: Companies should stay up to date[1] with the latest developments in quantum computing and quantum-resistant cryptography. This can be done by following the research community, standardization and regulations processes, attending conferences, and engaging with industry experts.

  4. Conduct regular security assessments: Companies need to have confidence in both hardware and software security implementations. They should validate the robustness of critical assets by conducting regular security assessments to identify vulnerabilities and potential weaknesses in their cryptographic algorithms and protocols. This will help them to proactively address security issues before they can be exploited.

[1] NIST(USA), ANSSI (France), BSI (Germany), ENISA (Europe), Cryptec (Japan), China regulation authorities
For the standards updates: PKCS#11 (includes HSS), under redactions: ETSI, IETF
Others launching projects on Quantum resistant algorithms: RISQ, QuIC, SQC, WEF Quantum Economy Network

How does the Kudelski Group address this technological disruption?

Kudelski Group offers a variety of different services and solutions that enable companies and institutions to understand their risks and take action to mitigate them.

Threat Assessment

The first step is to identify the client’s exposure to possible threats. This requires understanding the technology used. But also how it is deployed and what kind of data is processed with it.

Connected systems and IoT devices are exposed to a wide range of security risks. Companies which develop IoT systems are supposed to secure assets, data and processes in the long run. They shall identify what are the entry points that matter. Threats and constraints landscape analysis from the business model, technological and contextual standpoints increase awareness of potential threats scenarios and enables development teams to focus their effort on reaching the desired level of security of the IoT system.

A comprehensive device and system-wide threat assessment encompassing the quantum threats will provide a list of envisioned risks and threats scenarios. The likelihood of an event with a successful attack and its impact for the product, the user and/or the business are also part of threat assessment.

Cryptographic Discovery and Inventory

We detect and compile an inventory of all the cryptographic artifacts on the evaluated system within hosts, storage, and network. This includes SSL certificates, cryptographic keys, libraries, transmission protocols, and more. Cryptography that is not quantum resistant is flagged for inspection.

Quantum-Secure Architecture

The importance of selecting the right components, implementing the right configuration at start or enabling a future shift towards quantum-secure solutions will ensure the desired security level to be reached and maintained over time. The security architecture of an IoT system must provide appropriate measures to protect the most critical assets. It must also be defined to reach the business objectives while accepting risk where appropriate.

By incorporating quantum resistance, the global system architecture will embed the right features to:

·       protect data and communications

·       ensure the integrity of the device

·       address its security lifecycle to hold control over time.

We help you to design quantum-resistant hardware or software architectures, or to review existing ones. This is crucial for long-lifecycle products or services, or for enterprises who need long-term security compliance.

Quantum Security Laboratory Assessment and Reporting

Our experts perform a detailed evaluation of any issue found in the discovery or testing phase, including cryptographic artifacts, hardware side-channels, and code. We rank these issues by severity and provide mitigation recommendations considering the latest technology developments and including quantum computer threat.

We reproduce public attacks on implementations such as SPHINCS+, CRYSTALS-Dilithium,  or CRYSTALS-Kyber and investigate new ones using fault injection and side-channel attacks[2].  We perform research of vulnerabilities on custom solutions. We validate the robustness of quantum-secure algorithms design, their implementation and their countermeasures.

[2] “On Protecting SPHINCS+ Against Fault Attacks” https://ia.cr/2023/042  (CHES 2023)
“A Practical Template Attack on CRYSTALS-Dilithium “ https://eprint.iacr.org/2023/050.pdf (CHES 2023)
“Power analysis attack on Kyber”
“Breaking a Fifth-Order Masked Implementation of CRYSTALS-Kyber by Copy-Paste”

Migration Advisory and Deployment

We help you to design, implement, and monitor an effective and tailor-made strategy for a smooth quantum security migration. We are technology-agnostic and will consider the best suitable solution for your use case.

Secure IP

We offer a vast portfolio of secure IP, which includes resistance against side channel and fault attacks. It  also support some of the proposed quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms and mechanisms for updating them.

Quantum-Secure Solutions for Cryptographic algorithms

IoT devices will remain in the fields several years. Depending on their purpose, they should be designed with quantum computing threat in mind. Today, the available quantum resistant algorithms cannot replace directly RSA and ECC. Indeed, there is no “one size fits all” like with RSA or ECC:

- Stateful and Stateless hash-based signatures offer solutions to secure IoT device initialization and over-the-air updates. CNSA 2.0 enforces this approach [3].

- Different lattices-based algorithms offer solution for

   o   signatures in context of mutual authentication: CRYSTALS-DIlithium or Falcon

   o   key encapsulation mechanisms to replace key agreement: CRYSTALS-Kyber

There are also candidates based on code-based cryptosystems and a new NIST competition to offer alternative to lattice-based solution for signatures.

These different options and the lack of maturity for some bring uncertainty and complexity to have secure implementations. A careful evaluation of the needs is very important. With our expertise and Secure IP modular features we could address these difficulties.

Indeed, in addition to classical cryptographic algorithms, Kudelski IoT's Secure IP optionally embeds several quantum resistant algorithms. Based on the first standard recommendation NIST-SP800-208, the stateful hash-based signatures, LMS, XMSS and their extension could be available. Although the standards are not yet available, CRYSTALS (Cryptographic Suite for Algebraic Lattices) based -Kyber and Dilithium could also be embedded in Kudelski’s Secure IP. Development and integration of other lattices-based schemes - Frodo-KEM and Falcon- and stateless hash-based signature Sphincs+ are also planned in its roadmap.

Moreover, Secure IP features and interfaces enable hybrid asymmetric cryptography which relies on well-known and evaluated asymmetric algorithms (RSA and ECC based) in combination with quantum resistant algorithms.

[3] CSA_CNSA_2.0_ALGORITHMS_.PDF (defense.gov)

Performances and security agility

To bring performance and flexibility, the secure IP uses a RISC-V architecture enhanced by hardware accelerators. For quantum resistant algorithms to guarantee agility and capability to update them according to new specifications releases or new attacks, the implementation is a combination of hardware and software primitives.

To ensure security, robustness against side channel and fault attacks the secure IP designers take them in consideration at the different design phases of hardware and software functionalities.

Considering the constant attacks, security evolutions, and standards updates: Kudelski IoT's Secure  IP provides features to enhance life cycle management, secure update mechanism and secure initialization including the quantum computer as a threat.

Education and Training

We provide expert training and education on quantum computing and quantum security topics, and their applications and implications: from academia to business, for executives, technical leaders and engineers.


The potential threats posed by quantum computing to product security are significant and must be taken seriously. As quantum computers continue to evolve, traditional cryptographic methods that have long been relied upon to protect communications, sensitive data and intellectual property may no longer suffice.

However, businesses and organizations can take proactive steps to protect their products from the risks of quantum computing. They shall conduct a comprehensive assessment of their current security architecture and identify areas that are vulnerable to quantum attacks. Next, they can explore alternative cryptographic methods that are resistant to quantum computing, such as lattice-based cryptography.

Businesses can also invest in quantum-resistant solutions that have been specifically designed to withstand the power of quantum computing. It is crucial to stay informed and up-to-date on the latest developments in quantum computing and quantum-secure technology to ensure that products remain secure in the face of these emerging threats.

For more information about the basics of quantum computing and security principles, please download our free white paper, Point of View: Quantum Computing, Cryptography, and Security Technology.

This article contains contributions from Karine Villegas, Tommaso Gagliardoni, Lamyae Lahlou-Ben Moussa, Aymeric Genêt, Nathan Hamiel, Christopher Schouten and  Benoit Gerhard.

In conclusion, while quantum computing poses significant security challenges, there are steps that businesses and organizations can take to protect their products from the threats posed by this emerging technology. By staying proactive and vigilant, organizations can ensure that their products remain secure and protected in the era of quantum computing.

Fact Sheet

IoT Threat Assessment

Identify the most likely security risks and their potential impact.